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Science

 

subject overview

Science is a set of ideas about the material world. We have included all the parts of what good science is : whether it be investigating, observing, experimenting or testing out ideas and thinking about them. The way scientific ideas flow through the curriculum will support you in building a deep understanding of science. We know this will involve talking about, reading and writing about science plus the actual doing, as well as representing science in its many forms both mathematically and visually through models.

Unit overview - Particle model of matter

Overview – 3 Particle model of matter Kerboodle chapter 6-AS

Skills

  • Use of various equations, students need to memorise, manipulate equations to solve problems.
  • Required practical activity 5: use appropriate apparatus to make and record the measurements needed to determine the densities of regular and irregular solid objects and liquids. Volume should be determined from the dimensions of regularly shaped objects, and by a displacement technique for irregularly shaped objects. Dimensions to be measured using appropriate apparatus such as a ruler, micrometer or Vernier callipers. AT skills covered by this practical activity: AT 1.
  • AT1 Use of appropriate apparatus to make and record a range of measurements accurately, including length, area, mass, time, volume and temperature.

Knowledge

  • Changes of state and the particle model
  • Internal energy and energy transfers
  • Particle model and pressure

Rationale

The particle model is widely used to predict the behaviour of solids, liquids and gases and this has many applications in everyday life. It helps us to explain a wide range of observations and engineers use these principles when designing vessels to withstand high pressures and temperatures, such as submarines and spacecraft. It also explains why it is difficult to make a good cup of tea high up a mountain!

Unit overview - Infection and response

Overview – 3 Infection and response. Kerboodle chapters 5,6,& 7- AS

Skills

  • WS 1.4 Explain everyday and technological applications of science; evaluate associated personal, social, economic and environmental implications; and make decisions based on theeval uation of evidence and arguments.
  • WS 1.6 Recognise the importance of peer review of results and of communicating results to a range of audiences.
  • WS 1.3 Appreciate the power and limitations of science and consider any ethical issues which may arise.
  • WS 1.5 Evaluate risks both in practical science and the wider societal context, including perception of risk in relation to data and consequences.

Knowledge

  • Communicable diseases
  • Monoclonal antibodies (biology only) (HT only)
  • Plant disease (biology only)

Rationale

Pathogens are microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria that cause infectious diseases in

animals and plants. They depend on their host to provide the conditions and nutrients that they need to grow and reproduce. They frequently produce toxins that damage tissues and make us feel ill. This section will explore how we can avoid diseases by reducing contact with them, as well as how the body uses barriers against pathogens. Once inside the body our immune system is triggered which is usually strong enough to destroy the pathogen and prevent disease. When at risk from unusual or dangerous diseases our body's natural system can be enhanced by the use of vaccination. Since the 1940s a range of antibiotics have been developed which have proved successful against a number of lethal diseases caused by bacteria. Unfortunately many groups of bacteria have now become resistant to these antibiotics. The race is now on to develop a new set of antibiotics.

Unit overview - Quantitative chemistry

Overview – 4 Quantitative chemistry. Kerboodle chapter 4 - SB

Skills

  • Substitute numerical values into algebraic equations using appropriate units for physical quantities
  • MS 4a Translate information between graphical and numeric form.
  • MS 1a Recognise and use expressions in decimal form.
  • MS 1c Use ratios, fractions and percentage
  • MS 3a Understand and use the symbols: =, <, <<, >>, >, ∝, ~

Knowledge

  • Chemical measurements, conservation of mass and the quantitative interpretation of chemical equations
  • Use of amount of substance in relation to masses of pure substances
  • Structure and bonding of carbon

Rationale

Quantitative chemistry

Chemists use quantitative analysis to determine the formulae of compounds and the equations for reactions. Given this information, analysts can then use quantitative methods to determine the purity of chemical samples and to monitor the yield from chemical reactions. Chemical reactions can be classified in various ways. Identifying different types of chemical reaction allows chemists to make sense of how different chemicals react together, to establish patterns and to make predictions about the behaviour of other chemicals. Chemical equations provide a means of representing chemical reactions and are a key way for chemists to communicate chemical ideas.

Unit overview - Chemical changes

Overview – 4 Chemical changes. Kerboodle chapters 5 and 6 - SB

Skills

  • Required practical activity 8: preparation of a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt from an insoluble oxide or carbonate, using a Bunsen burner to heat dilute acid and a water bath or electric heater to evaporate the solution.
  • AT 2 Safe use of appropriate heating devices and techniques including use of a Bunsen burner and a water bath or electric heater.
  • AT 3 Use of appropriate apparatus and techniques for conducting chemical reactions, including appropriate reagents.
  • AT 4 Safe use of a range of equipment to purify and/or separate chemical mixtures including evaporation, filtration, crystallisation.
  • AT 6 Safe use and careful handling of liquids and solids, including careful mixing of reagents under controlled conditions.
  • WS 2.3 Apply a knowledge of a range of techniques, instruments, apparatus and materials to select those appropriate to the experiment.
  • WS 2.4 Carry out experiments appropriately having due regard for the correct manipulation of apparatus, the accuracy of measurements and health and safety considerations.
  • Required practical activity 9: investigate what happens when aqueous solutions are electrolysed using inert electrodes. This should be an investigation involving developing a hypothesis.
  • AT 3 Use of appropriate apparatus and techniques for conducting and monitoring chemical reactions.
  • AT 7 Use of appropriate apparatus and techniques to draw, set up and use electrochemical cells for separation and production of elements and compounds
  • WS 2.6 Make and record observations and measurements using a range of apparatus and methods.

Knowledge

  • Reactivity of metals
  • Reactions of acids
  • Electrolysis

Rationale

Chemical changes

Understanding of chemical changes began when people began experimenting with chemical reactions in a systematic way and organizing their results logically. Knowing about these different chemical changes meant that scientists could begin to predict exactly what new substances would be formed and use this knowledge to develop a wide range of different materials and processes. It also helped biochemists to understand the complex reactions that take place in living organisms. The extraction of important resources from the earth makes use of the way that some elements and compounds react with each other and how easily they can be ‘pulled apart’.

Unit overview - Atomic structure

Overview – 3 Atomic structure Kerboodle chapter 7-AS

Skills

  • Use of various equations, students need to memorise, manipulate equations to solve problems.
  • Students should be able to recognise expressions given in standard form.
  • Students should be able to use data presented in standard form.
  • Discovery of the electron/atomic structure provides an opportunity for students to show an understanding of why and describe how scientific methods and theories develop over time.

Knowledge

  • Atoms and isotopes
  • Atoms and nuclear radiation
  • Hazards and uses of radioactive emissions and of background radiation (physics only)

Rationale

Ionising radiation is hazardous but can be very useful. Although radioactivity was discovered over a century ago, it took many nuclear physicists several decades to understand the structure of atoms, nuclear forces and stability. Early researchers suffered from their exposure to ionising radiation. Rules for radiological protection were first introduced in the 1930s and subsequently improved. Today radioactive materials are widely used in medicine, industry, agriculture and electrical power generation.

Unit overview - Bioenenergetics

Overview – 4 Bioenenergetics. Kerboodle chapters 8 and 9 - AS

Skills

  • Required practical activity 6: investigate the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis using an aquatic organism such as pondweed. AT skills covered by this practical activity: AT 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
  • AT 1 Use of appropriate apparatus to make and record a range of measurements accurately, including length, area, mass, time, temperature, volume of liquids and gases, and pH.
  • AT 2 Safe use of appropriate heating devices and techniques including use of a Bunsen burner and a water bath or electric heater.
  • AT 3 Use of appropriate apparatus and techniques for the observation and measurement of biological changes and/or processes.
  • AT 4 Safe and ethical use of living organisms (plants or animals) to measure physiological functions and responses to the environment.
  • AT 5 Measurement of rates of reaction by a variety of methods including production of gas, uptake of water and colour change of indicator.

Knowledge

  • Photosynthesis
  • Respiration

Rationale

In this section we will explore how plants harness the Sun’s energy in photosynthesis in order to

make food. This process liberates oxygen which has built up over millions of years in the Earth’s

atmosphere. Both animals and plants use this oxygen to oxidise food in a process called aerobic respiration, which transfers the energy that the organism needs to perform its functions.

Conversely, anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen to transfer energy. During vigorous

exercise the human body is unable to supply the cells with sufficient oxygen and it switches to

anaerobic respiration. This process will supply energy but also causes the build-up of lactic acid in muscles which causes fatigue.

Unit overview -  Forces

Overview – 5 Forces Kerboodle chapter 8,9,10,11-AS

Skills

  • Use of various equations, students need to memorise, manipulate equations to solve problems.
  • Required practical activity 6: investigate the relationship between force and extension for a spring. AT skills covered by this practical activity: AT 1 and 2.
  • Required practical activity 7: investigate the effect of varying the force on the acceleration of an object of constant mass, and the effect of varying the mass of an object on the acceleration produced by a constant force. AT skills covered by this practical activity: AT 1, 2 and 3.
  • AT1 Use of appropriate apparatus to make and record a range of measurements accurately, including length, area, mass, time, volume and temperature. Use of such measurements to determine densities of solid and liquid objects.
  • AT 2 Use of appropriate apparatus to measure and observe the effects of forces including the extension of springs.
  • AT 3 Use of appropriate apparatus and techniques for measuring motion, including determination of speed and rate of change of speed (acceleration/deceleration)

Knowledge

  • Forces and their interactions
  • Work done and energy transfer
  • Forces and elasticity
  • Moments, levers and gears (physics only)
  • Pressure and pressure differences in fluids (physics only)
  • Forces and motion
  • Momentum (HT only)

Rationale

Engineers analyse forces when designing a great variety of machines and instruments, from road bridges and fairground rides to atomic force microscopes. Anything mechanical can be analysed in this way. Recent developments in artificial limbs use the analysis of forces to make movement possible.

Unit overview - Homeostasis and response

Overview – 5 Homeostasis and response. Kerboodle chapters 10,11 & 12 - AS

Skills

  • Required practical activity 7: plan and carry out an investigation into the effect of a factor on human reaction time. AT skills covered by this practical activity: AT 1, 3 and 4.
  • Required practical activity 8: investigate the effect of light or gravity on the growth of newly germinated seedlings. Record results as both length measurements and as careful, labelled biological drawings to show the effects. AT skills covered by this practical activity: AT 1, 3, 4 and 7. (biology only)

Knowledge

  • Homeostasis
  • The human nervous system
  • Hormonal coordination in humans
  • Plant hormones (biology only)

Rationale

Cells in the body can only survive within narrow physical and chemical limits. They require a

constant temperature and pH as well as a constant supply of dissolved food and water. In order to do this the body requires control systems that constantly monitor and adjust the composition of the blood and tissues. These control systems include receptors which sense changes and effectors that bring about changes. In this section we will explore the structure and function of the nervous system and how it can bring about fast responses. We will also explore the hormonal system which usually brings about much slower changes. Hormonal coordination is particularly important in reproduction since it controls the menstrual cycle. An understanding of the role of hormones in reproduction has allowed scientists to develop not only contraceptive drugs but also drugs which can increase fertility.

Unit overview - Energy changes

Overview – 5 Energy changes. Kerboodle chapter 7 - SB

Skills

  • Required practical activity 10: investigate the variables that affect temperature changes in reacting solutions such as, eg acid plus metals, acid plus carbonates, neutralisations, displacement of metals.
  • AT 1 Use of appropriate apparatus to make and record a range of measurements accurately, including mass, temperature, and volume of liquids.
  • AT 3 Use of appropriate apparatus and techniques for conducting and monitoring chemical reactions
  • AT 5 Making and recording of appropriate observations during chemical reactions including changes in temperature.
  • AT 6 Safe use and careful handling of gases, liquids and solids, including careful mixing of reagents under controlled conditions, using appropriate apparatus to explore chemical changes.
  • WS 2.3 Apply a knowledge of a range of techniques, instruments, apparatus and materials to select those appropriate to the experiment.
  • WS 2.4 Carry out experiments appropriately having due regard for the correct manipulation of apparatus, the accuracy of measurements and health and safety considerations. 
  • MS 4a Translate information between graphical and numeric form.
  • MS 4c Plot two variables from experimental or other data.

Knowledge

  • Exothermic and endothermic reactions
  • Chemical cells and fuel cells (chemistry only)

Rationale

Energy Changes

Energy changes are an important part of chemical reactions. The interaction of particles often involves transfers of energy due to the breaking and formation of bonds. Reactions in which energy is released to the surroundings are exothermic reactions, while those that take in thermal energy are endothermic. These interactions between particles can produce heating or cooling effects that are used in a range of everyday applications. Some interactions between ions in an electrolyte result in the production of electricity. Cells and batteries use these chemical reactions to provide electricity. Electricity can also be used to decompose ionic substances and is a useful means of producing elements that are too expensive to extract any other way.

knowledge Organiser

A knowledge organiser is an important document that lists the important facts that learners should know by the end of a unit of work. It is important that learners can recall these facts easily, so that when they are answering challenging questions in their assessments and GCSE and A-Level exams, they are not wasting precious time in exams focusing on remembering simple facts, but making complex arguments, and calculations.

We encourage all pupils to use them by doing the following:

  • Quiz themselves at home, using the read, write, cover, check method.
  • Practise spelling key vocabulary
  • Further researching people, events and processes most relevant to the unit.