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Chemistry

SUBJECT overview

We follow the Edexcel syllabus in chemistry. In both AS and A2 the course is split into 3 units. Learners will sit their terminal examinations in June.   Assessed practical make up the units studied in AS and A2 are as follows:

  • Unit 1: The Core Principles of Chemistry
  • Unit 2: Application of Core Principles of Chemistry
  • Unit 3: Chemistry Laboratory Skills I (10%)
  • Unit 4: General Principles of Chemistry I – Rates, Equilibria and Further Organic Chemistry
  • Unit 5: General Principles of Chemistry II – Transition Metals and Organic Nitrogen Chemistry
  • Unit 6: Chemistry Laboratory Skills II (10.0%)

Year 12 : Section 1 ( Physical Chemistry)                                                               

  • Atomic structure
  • Amount of substance
  • Bonding
  • Energetics 1
  • Kinetics 1
  • Equilibria1
  • Oxidation,reduction and redox reactions

Section 2: Inorganic Chemistry

  • Periodicity
  • Group 1
  • Group7

Section 3 : Organic Chemistry

  • Introduction to organic chemistry
  • Alkanes
  • Haloalkanes
  • Alkenes
  • Alcohols
  • Organic analysis

unit overview - autumn 

Subject: AS Chemistry Autumn Overview 2020

Skills

Physical Chemistry:1.1-1.4 Students report calculations to an appropriate number of significant figures, given raw data quoted to varying numbers of significant figures. Students calculate weighted means, eg calculation of an atomic mass based on supplied isotopic abundances.

  • 2.1 -1.2 Students interpret and analyse spectra. Students carry out calculations using numbers in standard and ordinary form, eg using the Avogadro constant. Students report calculations to an appropriate number of significant figures, given raw data quoted to varying numbers of significant figure. Students understand that calculated results can only be reported to the limits of the least accurate measurement.
  • Practical 1
  • 2.3-2.5 practical skills AT a, b and k. Students understand that the correct units need to be in pV = nRT. Students carry out calculations with the ideal gas equation, including rearranging the ideal gas equation to find unknown quantities.

Required practical: AT a and k AT d, e, f and k

  • Students should learn above practical skills by determining the number of moles of water of crystallisation in a hydrated salt by titration.
  • Students could be given familiar and unfamiliar examples of species and asked to deduce the shape according to valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) principles.

Required practical 2: AT a and k

  • Measurement of an enthalpy change. Students understand that the correct units need to be used in q = mcT
  • Students report calculations to an appropriate number of significant figures, given raw data quoted to varying numbers of significant figures.
  • Students understand that calculated results can only be reported to the limits of the least accurate measurement.

Required practical 3

  • Investigation of how the rate of a reaction changes with temperature. AT a, b, k and l

PS 2.4 and 3.1

  • Students could investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction of sodium thiosulfate and hydrochloric acid by an initial rate method.

Research opportunity

  • Students could investigate how knowledge and understanding of the factors that affect the rate of chemical reaction have changed methods of storage and cooking of food.
  • Students estimate the effect of changing experimental parameters on a measurable value, eg how the value of Kc would change with temperature, given different specified conditions.
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Students could test the solubility of Group 2 hydroxides by mixing solutions of soluble Group 2 salts with sodium hydroxide and record their results.
  • Students could test the solubility of Group 2 sulfates by mixing solutions of soluble Group 2 salts with sulfuric acid and record their results.
  • Students could test for sulfate ions using acidified barium chloride and record their results.

Research opportunity

  • Students could investigate the use of BaSO4 in medicine. Students could carry out test-tube reactions of solutions of the halogens (Cl2, Br2, I2) with solutions containing their halide ions (eg KCl, KBr, KI).
  • Students could record observations from reactions of NaCl, NaBr and NaI with concentrated sulfuric acid.
  • Students could carry out tests for halide ions using acidified silver nitrate, including the use of ammonia to distinguish the silver halides formed
  • Organic Chemistry.
  • Students could be given the structure of one isomer and asked to draw further isomers. Various representations could be used to give the opportunity to identify those that are isomeric.
  • MS 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3
  • Students understand the origin of EZ isomerism.
  • Students draw different forms of isomers.
  • AT d and k
  • PS 4.1
  • Students could test organic compounds for unsaturation using bromine water and record their observations

Knowledge

Physical Chemistry:Determine the number of fundamental particles in atoms and ions using mass number, atomic number and charge. explain the existence of isotopes.

  • Interpret simple mass spectra of elements calculate relative atomic mass from isotopic abundance, limited to mononuclear ions. define first ionisation energy
  • Define first ionisation energy
  • Write equations for first and successive ionisation energies
  • explain how first and successive ionisation energies in Period 3 (Na–Ar) and in Group 2 (Be–Ba) give evidence for electron configuration in sub-shells and in shells. 3 (Na–Ar) and in Group 2 (Be–Ba) give evidence for electron configuration in sub-shells and in shells. using the Avogadro constant
  • using mass of substance, Mr, and amount in moles
  • using concentration, volume and amount of substance in a solution. calculate empirical formula from data giving composition by mass or percentage by mass

calculate molecular formula from the empirical formula and relative molecular mass.

Required practical 1

  • Make up a volumetric solution and carry out a simple acid–base titration.

use balanced equations to calculate:

  • masses
  • volumes of gases
  • percentage yields
  • percentage atom economies
  • concentrations and volumes for reactions in solutions.

      predict the charge on a simple ion using the position of the element in the              Periodic Table

  • construct formulas for ionic compounds. relate the melting point and conductivity of materials to the type of structure and the bonding present
  • explain the energy changes associated with changes of state
  • draw diagrams to represent these structures involving specified numbers of particles explain the shapes of, and bond angles in, simple molecules and ions with up to six electron pairs (including lone pairs of electrons) surrounding the central atom
  • define standard enthalpy of combustion (∆cHƟ)
  • define standard enthalpy of formation (∆fHƟ).

Required practical 2

  • Measurement of an enthalpy change.
  • use this equation to calculate the molar enthalpy change for a reaction
  • use this equation in related calculations.
  • use Hess’s law to perform calculations, including calculation of enthalpy changes for reactions from enthalpies of combustion or from enthalpies of formation.
  • define the term activation energy
  • explain why most collisions do not lead to a reaction.

Required practical 3

Investigation of how the rate of a reaction changes with temperature

  • use the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution to explain why a small temperature increase can lead to a large increase in rate.
  • use Le Chatelier’s principle to predict qualitatively the effect of changes in temperature, pressure and concentration on the position of equilibrium
  • explain why, for a reversible reaction used in an industrial process, a compromise temperature and pressure may be used.
  • work out the oxidation state of an element in a compound or ion from the formula
  • write half-equations identifying the oxidation and reduction processes in redox reactions
  • combine half-equations to give an overall redox equation.

Inorganic Chemistry

  • explain the trends in atomic radius and first ionisation energy
  • explain the melting point of the elements in terms of their structure and bonding.
  • explain why BaCl2 solution is used to test for sulfate ions and why it is acidified
  • explain the trend in electronegativity
  • explain the trend in the boiling point of the elements in terms of their structure and bonding

Organic Chemistry

  • draw structural, displayed and skeletal formulas for given organic compounds
  • apply IUPAC rules for nomenclature to name organic compounds limited to chains and rings with up to six carbon atoms each
  • apply IUPAC rules for nomenclature to draw the structure of an organic compound from the IUPAC name limited to chains and rings with up to six carbon atoms each.
  • define the term structural isomer
  • draw the structures of chain, position and functional group isomers
  • define the term stereoisomer
  • draw the structural formulas of E and Z isomers
  • apply the CIP priority rules to E and Z isomers

Rationale

Physical Chemistry: describe the structure of atoms in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons

recall the relative mass and relative charge of protons, neutrons and electrons.

  • describe how a time of flight mass spectrometer works
  • identify elements and calculate relative atomic mass from mass spectroscopy data

find the relative formula mass of compounds from mass spectroscopy data. Students should be able to do calculations by:

  • using the Avogadro constant
  • using mass of substance, Mr, and amount in moles
  • using concentration, volume and amount of substance in a solution.
  • write balanced equations
  • write ionic equations
  • carry out calculations for reactions involving:

• masses,

• percentage yields,

• atom economies,

• volumes of gases,

• concentrations & volumes of solutions,

  • give economic, ethical and environmental advantages  for society and industry of processes with a high atom economy.
  •  describe the structure of ionic compounds
  • explain the properties of ionic compounds using an understanding of ionic bonding
  • predict the formula of simple ions based on the position of the element in the Periodic Table and knowledge of common compound ions
  • write the formula of ionic compounds.
  • explain using VSEPR theory why molecules and ions have the shapes that they do, including the effect on the bond angles of the great repulsion by lone (non-bonding) pairs

Understand and be able to use the equation q = mc∆T to calculate molar enthalpy changes.

  • Required practical 2
  • Measurement of an enthalpy change.
  • Use Hess’s law to calculate enthalpy changes using enthalpies of formation and combustion.
  • Drawing Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution curves.
  • Understand how and why temperature affects the rate of chemical reactions.
  •  
  • Required practical 3
  • Investigation of how the rate of a reaction changes with temperature.
  • Understand why a compromise temperature and pressure may be used for a reversible reaction in an industrial process.
  •  
  • Understand the effect of a catalyst on an equilibrium.
  • Predict the effect, if any, of changes in conditions on the value of Kc.
  • Writing redox half equations and full equations.

Inorganic Chemistry:

  • How elements Mg–Ba react with water. Solubility and some uses of Group 2 sulfates and hydroxides
  • Trends in oxidising power of halogens and reducing power of halide ions.

Organic Chemistry:

  • Understand what is meant by a homologous series. Draw and name organic molecules with chains and rings with up to six carbon
  • Understand the difference between structural and stereoisomerism. Understand the three types of structural isomerism: chain, position and functional group. Understand the cause of E–Z isomerism. Draw and name E–Z isomers using CIP priority rules.

knowledge Organiser

A knowledge organiser is an important document that lists the important facts that learners should know by the end of a unit of work. It is important that learners can recall these facts easily, so that when they are answering challenging questions in their assessments and GCSE and A-Level exams, they are not wasting precious time in exams focusing on remembering simple facts, but making complex arguments, and calculations.

We encourage all pupils to use them by doing the following:

  • Quiz themselves at home, using the read, write, cover, check method.
  • Practise spelling key vocabulary
  • Further researching people, events and processes most relevant to the unit.